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Glossary of Indian Classical Music

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Glossary of Indian Classical Music

Glossary of Indian Classical Music

This is an alphabetical list of the more important and frequently used terms in North Indian classical music.This category is about musical terminology of Hindustani classical music, a principal sub genre of Indian classical music.
Alaap:Elaboration of a melody without accompaniments
amad:arrival into the orbit of the tala leading to the sam
andolan:swinging (around a swar)
ang:lit. part, body
antar:the latter half of a khyaal composition
antra:The second half of a song based on the higher notes of the scale.
anuvaadi:neutral (refers to swar)
Amrohi:Descend of the notes Example : Ni, Dha, Pa, Ma, Ga, Re, Sa
arohi:ascending contour of a raga or ascend of the notes. Here each note is higher than the preceding
note. Example : Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni
asthayee:the first half of a khyaal of song compositioin or the first part of the composition. Mainly
develops in the lower and the middle octave.
audov:pentatonic
bada khyaal:vilambit khayal composition
bandish:that which is bound or constrained; refers to a melodic composition fixed with words to the
tala cycle; may also refer to the superstructure of the kyaal presentation. While alaap is the revelation of the raga, bandish is its design or display. Here the modes are explained in tune and words. Bandish is a composition (vocal or instrumental) fixed in a rhythmic pattern.
besura:out of tune
bhajan:devotional song
bol:
syllables of text or tAla compositions
bol-alaap:
Alaap done with words of text
bol-taan:taans with words of text. Use of words in the improvisation of notes in medium or fast tempo
chalan:lit. gait, a tonal sentence showing movement within a raga
dhamar:a traditional dhrupad-like form usually set in the 14-beat dhamar taal or a style of compositionin 14 beats of a Taal
dhrupad:ancient Indian classical form evolved from prabandha. 'Dhrupad' and pada (word). It has a
formal structure, the details of which are beyond the scope of this glossary. A style of composition in 12beats
Drut:Fast Tempo of the music
ektaal:a 12-beat tala
gamak:embellishment imparted to a swara; there are several types of gamakas
gandhar:G or g, the third swar of the scale
gat: refers to a composition played on the tabla
Gat:A fixed composition of instrumental music
gharana:a stylistic tradition or school in Hindustani music
ghazal:a lyrical form in Urdu poetry; there are precise criteria by which a form is considered a ghazal
guru:Traditional teacher or preceptor

jati:Model Scale
jhaptaal:a 10-beat tala
kalakar:artiste kana-swara: grace swar
khraj:bass, movement in the lower parts of the mandar saptak
khayal:lit. thought, the dominant form in Hindustani music of the day or composition in Hindustani
music, usually in a  slow tempo, in which the artist uses a great deal of improvisation
komal:flattened kshudra: refers to a raga low in significance
lakshan:distinguishing character
laya:tempo
madh:middle, qualifies the octave and the tempo madhyam: M or m, the fourth swar of the scale
mandar:
the lower register
matra:time interval between beats of a tala. One beat of the rhythm
meend:a smooth (typically descending) glide from one swar to the other
melakarta:the raga grouping scheme found in the Karnataka paddhati comprising 72 sampooran scales
mukhra:lit. face; the opening textual and melodic phrase of a composition or the first line of the
composition.
murki:a short, rapid trill
nishad:N or n, the seventh swar of the scale
odho:Pentatonic mode emphasizing any five notes
pakkad:the 'handle' (quintessence) of a raga
pancham:P, the fifth swara of the scale
poorvi ang:the lower half (tetrachord) of the scale
poorvi ragas:Ragas sung between the hours of 12 midnights and 12 noons
raga:the melodic structure basic to Indian music or combination of notes that conveys a definite
emotion
raganga:raga+anga, the core feature of the raga
rasa:The flavour to be realized in the atheistic emotion
rishab, rikhab:R or r, the second swar of the scale
roopak:a 7-beat Hindustani tala
sahitya:prose, text of a composition
sampoorn:complete, refers to a raga employing 7 swaras samvadi: the sub-dominant swara in a raga
saptak:octave or nn octave of natural notes
sam:the first beat of a tala
sargam:presentation of a melody in actual notes
shabad:lit. word, also refers to the hymns in the Sikh holy book, Gurbani
shadav:of six swaras
shadaj:S, the tonic Sa
shruti:Shruti or śruti (ʃrut̪i) is a Sanskrit term, which in the context of Indian music, is the smallest interval of pitch that the human ear can detect. 
swar; also refers to microtones or a musical interval
shuddh:It refers to the 7 basic notes of the octave or a pure note
samay :Each raga has a specific time at which it an be performed. This is so as those notes are
supposed to be more effective at that particular time.
sthana:location
swar:a musical note plus its graces
swa roop:appearance, profile
taiyyari:preparation (in terms of training) of a musician
taal:the rhythmic cycle with matras and bols. Time measure of rhythmic beat.
taan:rapid musical passage. Improvisations of notes in medium and fast tempo
teentaal:a 16-beat tala
tiver:augmented or sharpened, qualifies the madhyam
thaat:group of sampoorn scales, taxonomical scheme for Hindustani ragas
uttara ang:the upper tetrachord
varja:eliminated, banned (refers to swars absent from a raga)
vilambit:slow, qualifies pace of a composition or elaboration
vivaadi:a foreign swar occasionally injected into a raga for ornamental or surprise value. The meaning of vivadi is "one which produces dissonance ".Which is not present in the raga. But still a vivadi swar is used in a raga by able singers  in such a way that it enhances the beauty of the raga. This is done very rarely. For example some times in the raga "aiman" Shuddh Madhyam is used in between

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